Updated: Sep 3, 2021
Myopia is a condition in which someone cannot clearly see things that are far away. #Myopia is a refractive defect in which the eye cannot bend or refract light properly. Because the eye does not correctly focus on the light that reaches it, distant images may look blurred and unclear. Myopia, or nearsightedness, makes it difficult to view distant objects, while it is possible to see well for close-up tasks such as reading and computer use. #Nearsighted people, for example, may not be able to see highway signs until they are only a few feet away. People who are nearsighted often complain of headaches, eyestrain, squinting or fatigue when driving, playing sports, or looking more than a few feet away.
Types of Myopia
1) Simple Myopia
The eye is otherwise healthy in simple myopia. Vision problems can be easily corrected by wearing glasses or contact lenses.
2) High Myopia
This type of myopia is a little more severe. It happens when a person develops nearsightedness at an early age that worsens with maturity.
High myopia raises a person's likelihood of acquiring other eye problems such retinal detachment, glaucoma, or cataracts.
3) Pathological Myopia
People with pathological, or degenerative, myopia will have additional eye conditions. The eye will also have issues that affect the retina, such as:
· lattice degeneration, which is a type of retinal thinning
· retinal atrophy, wherein parts of the retina have wasted and do not work
· Forster-Fuchs’ spot, which is a type of scarring on the retina that can lead to blind spots
Pathological myopia can also cause vision loss that glasses or contact lenses cannot correct.
Causes of Myopia
Myopia is a condition that runs in families and usually manifests in childhood. Sometimes the illness reaches a halt, and other times it worsens as people get older. Children who have a parent with myopia, for example, are more likely to get the condition themselves. If both parents have it, the risk is higher. Nearsightedness is more likely in children who spend little time outside or who spend a lot of time doing up-close tasks.
Although myopia usually develops in childhood, it can also occur in adults as a result of visual stress, which occurs when a person overuses the eye’s focusing mechanism.
Treatments for Myopia
1) Glasses and contact lenses
The most popular treatments for myopia are glasses and contact lenses. An optometrist will create personalised lenses with the correct prescription for the individual. These will fit within the glasses frame and correct any nearsightedness. Contact lenses, like glasses, can be customised to fit a variety of prescriptions.
Orthokeratology, or corneal refractive therapy, is a nonsurgical procedure that can help people with mild forms of myopia. To reshape the cornea, this procedure entails wearing a succession of stiff contact lenses. These lenses flatten the cornea by applying pressure to it. As a result, the way light focuses as it enters the eye alters.
LASIK, is the most commonly performed laser eye surgery, The surgery reshapes the cornea so that light entering the eye is appropriately focused on the retina, allowing for better vision. It is almost painless and only takes around 15 minutes for both eyes. The benefits of enhanced vision without the need of eyeglasses or contact lenses begin right after the surgery, and eyesight normally improves and stabilises over the course of a few days.
Because myopia has hereditary roots, it might be difficult to prevent in persons who have a family history of nearsightedness.